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In conclusion, ...

How do agents ever perform optimally when time is pressing and cognitive resources such as working memory are scarce?

1. Minimal models are needed to answer this question.

**NEW RESEARCH** on minimal models is needed to answer this question.

2. Conjectures about minimal models generate readily testable predictions in the social domain.

(And we can adapt successful paradigms from nonsocial domains, specifically physical cognition and goal-selection.)

3. Pluralism about models is true.

Minimal Virtues

from Mindreading
to Ethics
via Joint Action

references + notes:

And these are some of the partners in crime who have aided and abetted over the years.

Earlier research: Infants prefer to reach for good elephant.

Now: infants see the good [/bad] elephant being treated pro and anti-socially ...

Hamlin et al, 2011 supplementary materials

Hamlin et al, 2011 supplementary materials

prosocial helping moose

Hamlin et al, 2011 supplementary materials

antisocial harming elephant moose

How infants feel about the two moose?

Hamlin et al, 2011 figure 1 (part)

‘Our 5-mo-old subjects preferred an individual who acted positively toward another regardless of the target’s previous behavior, suggesting that they apprehended the local valence of the action witnessed but did not compute its global valence in the broader context.’
‘our 8-mo-old infants assessed the global value of an action–their patterns of choice suggest that, in particular, they viewed a locally negative action as bad when directed toward a prosocial individual, but good when directed toward an antisocial individual’

Toddlers: giving a treat

‘19- to 23- mo-olds in experiment 4 first played a warm-up game in which they were trained to give “treats” (small foam blocks) to several stuffed animals by placing a treat into each animal’s bowl.’
‘Participants were then randomly assigned to a Giving a Treat condition or a Taking a Treat condition’
‘Subjects in the Giving-a-Treat condition were told that there was “only one treat left” and that they needed to choose which of the two puppets to give it to; they were then given the treat to distribute to the recipient of their choice. Subjects in the Taking-a-Treat condition were shown a new animal “who didn’t get a treat” and asked to take a treat away from either the Prosocial or Antisocial puppet (their choice) so that this animal could have one.’

Hamlin et al, 2011 figure 2 (part)

‘Our toddlers were willing to approach (rather than avoid) individuals who had behaved antisocially, overcoming their aversion to antisocial others (4–6, 42) to direct a negative behavior toward them.’